Determine the main topic of a text; Summarize a text (Inclusive Big Idea #2)
What are students learning?
Reading Informational Text
Grade 4: English Language Arts
Inclusive Big Idea #2: Determine the main topic of a text; Summarize a text
Standard: Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. RI.4.2
How could I teach this?
Think about how instructional strategies and activities can give students multiple ways to engage with learning. One way won’t work for all, so how can you remove and reduce barriers for all students?
- Bubble Graphic Organizer: Model how to list the topic of a text or multimedia and note events and/or details that support the topic (e.g., the best time to plant pumpkins, how long it takes them to grow and ripen, typical sizes, uses). Adding sentence starters to the bubble graphic organizer may help students to record their ideas. See this TIP Sheet for more information on how to make graphic organizers more accessible and engaging for all.
- Topic Board: Model how to identify pictures that represent the topic(s) of a given text. Include illustrations or sentences from the text; include events and details that support the topic in a topic board or graphic organizer. Start using high-interest texts and provide choice, where possible. Allow students to have the option to make their own topic boards using digital media.
- Interactive Reading: Have students read or listen to the text, and model how to stop at predetermined points to record or share thoughts and respond to text. Record and caption a video of you engaging in interactive story reading for students who want to watch it multiple times and hear your thinking.
- Group Think: Work with students to use the title of the reading to determine what the topic is. Model how to identify sentences that highlight the topic and supporting details about the topic. Providing an option to use graphic organizers with sentence starters may help students to record their ideas as they listen to or read the text. See this TIP Sheet for more information on Whole Group Discussions.
- Example: Preview the topic, such as pumpkins. Read or listen to the informational text, “All About Pumpkins.” Use the title to help identify the topic. Students can record or share any of the details that are included about pumpkins.
- Think Aloud: To model summarizing, read aloud a book to the class, have students listen to audiobooks, or have students read them in pairs. Share how readers periodically stop and summarize what was just read using just one sentence (e.g., “That paragraph was mostly about _______”). At the end of the text, provide another summary of the entire text that focuses on the central message. See this TIP Sheet for more information on how to model using a Think Aloud.
- GIST: GIST (Generating Interactions between Schemata and Text) is a strategy that asks readers to condense or summarize a text or other media by generating a brief summary in their own words. Students can use sentence starters or follow model answers to provide the GIST by identifying some of the main ideas or key details from a text. In longer texts, encourage students to stop every few pages and tell or document the GIST of what was read so far.
Don’t stop here! Remember to reduce barriers for all students.
Make reducing barriers a process - take a few minutes to think about your process! Is there a barrier related to:
- interest or engagement? Think about how to incorporate student’s lived experiences, culture, and interests…
- background knowledge? Think about how to highlight key ideas and define key vocabulary…
- showing what they know? Think about having options for how they use learning tools and technology to communicate…
For example, one possible barrier is the amount of information that a student needs to hold in mind.
Ideas to reduce this barrier could include:
- be aware of how much sensory input occurs at once, perhaps offer the option to use headphones
- show examples and provide answers to check along the way
- provide templates or graphic organizers
- allow use of spell checks and other tools
Use these Inclusive Strategies to help reduce barriers.
Tell me more about this Inclusive Big Idea (I need a refresher)
Brush up on the content of this Inclusive Big Idea. It will help you and your colleagues to understand and teach this content better.
- The Big Idea: Determine the main topic of a text; Summarize a text
- Tell me more about… Main Topic
- The main ideas of informational text are the most important points that the author is trying to make about a specific topic. Identifying and categorizing main ideas within informational text is critical to success because it allows readers to prioritize information in a text. It provides the reader with a framework for understanding and recalling the important ideas in the text.
- Teaching the Main Idea-- Continuum
- Identify the key words of a sentence
- Identify key words or topic of a paragraph
- Identify the topic sentence of a paragraph
- Recognize the explicitly stated point of a paragraph
- Infer the main idea of a paragraph
- Recognize the relationships among ideas in related paragraphs in longer selections
- Infer relationships among ideas in related paragraphs in longer selections
- Determine the main idea or central message of an entire text.
- Tell me more about… Summarizing Texts
- When summarizing, readers reduce larger selections of text to their bare essentials: the gist, the key ideas, and the main points that are worth noting and remembering. Summarizing is an important skill for readers of all levels and abilities and goes beyond retelling to demonstrate a strong understanding of the text. Summarizing requires readers to comprehend, analyze, and synthesize ideas.
- Good readers…
- reduce the extraneous verbiage and examples
- focus on the most relevant facts
- find key words/phrases that capture the main idea of what was read
- find the main ideas and the essential details that support the main idea
Looking for more suggestions? Target student common misconceptions, build on interdisciplinary links, and implement strategies and supports across multiple lessons or units.
Common Student Misconceptions
- Main Idea: Students may have difficulty determining what essential information is. Students often misinterpret details as being the main idea and need to be guided to see the author’s overall point or the ‘big picture’. It is also important to note that the main idea is not simply what the text is about (e.g., informational text covering the discovery of electricity; Benjamin Franklin was key in its first applications, but he is not the main idea). When the main idea is known at the beginning of a text, it alerts the reader to upcoming information and helps them set a purpose for reading. This leads to a greater understanding of the text. Learning how to identify the main idea will help readers remember what they read and improve their comprehension.
- Summarizing: Teachers sometimes mistakenly believe that students have the ability to determine what is essential within a text. Explicit teaching is often required for students to learn this skill.
- Building Background Knowledge: Many teachers assume students already know about a topic based on their age or what they should have learned in a previous grade or class. When background knowledge is not built or activated, students will lack the schema to understand new material and may not effectively learn and understand the topic or concept.
- Supporting Details: Not all information in text is considered supporting details. Authors sometimes provide additional details that are not essential to the understanding of the main idea.
Links Across Content Areas
- Science & Social Studies: Once students can determine the main idea and key details of a text, ask them to apply this skill to their reading about the subject matter.
- Hanging Out: Ask students to summarize their weekend activities when sharing with their peers, identifying the main idea and supporting details.
Show me other related Inclusive Big Ideas
Explore other Inclusive Big Ideas to think about the content you are teaching. How can you connect what you are teaching now to what has been taught before or what will be taught in the future?
The Inclusive Big Ideas were adapted from resources created by the NCSC Project , a federal grant from the US Department of Education (PR/Award #: H373X100002), However, the contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the US Department of Education and no assumption of endorsement by the Federal government should be made.